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Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: Essays on the Guardians of by Alf Hiltebeitel

By Alf Hiltebeitel

The Hindu sacred order is guarded through the very gods who violate it and the demons who oppose it. This ebook is a who is who of such transgressive figures, either well-known and unexpected, exhibiting their position in the Hindu order that they violate. it's also a mirrored image of the intense scholarly debate over the character and composition of this Hindu order.

The chapters diversity from pan-Hindu deities reminiscent of Bhairava and Virabhadra to parent gods of particular areas and lineages and of alternative goddess cults. Chapters hide violent issues in SAaivite hagiography, the placement of Brahmans with regards to cultic carnivorism, parent heroes in folks epic, the deified useless, the royal mythology of a "criminal caste," and a wide-ranging evaluation of transgressive sacrality.

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17. At a later point (pp. 63-64), the text specifies 700,000 guards (including Muslim tulukkar),1000 Brahmans on elephants, 30 great kings, 300 ministers, 50 other kings, 1000 tatiyar,etc. Civapputaiyan's salary for this post is 1000 pon (19). 18. See pp. 19, 170. I refrain from developing here the links with Draupadi's hair; see A. , Autour de la déesse hindoue, Purusartha 5 (1981), 179-211. 19. She in fact saves his life when Cinnan's father is on the verge of overcoming him. This entire episode is a major focus of the Natakam.

62. I am again indebted to Don Handelman for this formulation. 63. , Sivasubrahmanya from Kollimalai. 64. See Tirumurukarruppatai 258. 65. See Kuruntokai 89 and 100, with U. Ve. Caminataiyar's notes. 66. Don Handelman, "Myths of Murukan: Asymmetry and Hierarchy in a South-Indian Puranic Cosmology," in press. 2011 23:05:21] cover The Changing Face of Kattavarayan Eveline Masilamani-Meyer A look at the basic story of Kattavarayan tells us that this god is a criminal. 1 His crime: the abduction of a Brahman maiden.

2011 23:05:21] cover 9. It is not clear if four is meant as a precise figure or simply as "several," as is common in coloquial Tamil. 10. In the Natakam (p. 27) he asks to be born in response to his mother's suffering because of Siva's curse. 11. Thomas Burrow and Murray B. Emeneau, Dravidian Etymological Dictionary (London: Oxford University Press, 1961), entry number 1192. 12. Kattamuttu Natakam,p. 28. , the goddess. 13. See discussion in Shulman, The King and the Clown,361-62. 14. The former is used by the Katai,the latter by the Natakam.

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