By Peter Coles
This publication is a straightforward, non-technical advent to cosmology, explaining what it really is and what cosmologists do. Peter Coles discusses the background of the topic, the improvement of the large Bang thought, and extra speculative sleek matters like quantum cosmology, superstrings, and darkish subject.
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Additional resources for Cosmology: A Very Short Introduction
The disagreement between the ocean ﬂoor samples and the Devil’s Hole samples triggered a scramble to understand the problem. Were the age determinations of one or the other set of samples wrong? Were the calculations of ancient temperatures wrong? Or were scientists misunderstanding the signiﬁcance of the evidence? In 1997, a new study of the ages of the samples conﬁrmed that those from the ocean ﬂoor are correctly dated. But the same study found that the ages of the Devil’s Hole samples are also correct.
For example, some believers in pyramid power slept under pyramidal tents to improve their rest. There is no logical mechanism by which such a tent could affect a sleeper, but because people wanted and expected the claim to be true they reported that they slept more soundly. Vague claims based on personal testimony that cannot be tested are another sign of a pseudoscience. Astrology is another pseudoscience. It has been tested over and over for centuries, and it doesn’t work. Nevertheless, many people believe in astrology despite contradictory evidence.
The current warm period began about 12,000 years ago. Ice ages seem to occur with a period of roughly 250 million years, and glaciers advance and melt back during ice ages in a complicated pattern that involves cycles of about 40,000 years and 100,000 years. (These cycles have no connection with global warming, which can produce changes in Earth’s climate over just a few decades. ) Evidence shows that these slow cycles of the ice ages have an astronomical origin. CHAPTER 2 | THE SKY 25 The Hypothesis Sometimes a theory or hypothesis is proposed long before scientists can ﬁnd the critical evidence to test it.