By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie
During this quantity, the world’s prime specialists describe a few of the languages of the area. it's envisioned that there
are greater than 250 proven language households on the earth, and over 6800 certain languages, lots of which
are threatened or endangered. This quantity presents the main accomplished survey on hand on a large
proportion of those. It comprises 377 articles on particular languages or language households drawn from the two
editions of the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (ELL). The articles describe the sounds, meaning,
structure, and relations relationships of the languages, and feature been selected to demonstrate the diversity and variety of
Read Online or Download Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World PDF
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Extra info for Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World
OCR OED OOP OPT OSV OT OV OVS P PA PART PASS PAT PERF PERS PET PF PHON PIE PL PM Po PO POL POSS POTEN PP PP PLUPERF PRED PREF PREP PRES PRO PRO PROG ProgP PROHIB PRESP PS-rule PSG PTQ PURP Q QR QUANT QU number non-verbal communication onset (of syllable) object oblique obstruent obsolete optical character recognition Oxford English Dictionary object-oriented programming optative object-subject-verb (in word order typology) Old Testament; Optimality Theory object precedes verb (in word order typology) object-verb-subject (in word order typology) phrase; predicate pushdown automation participle; particle; partitive passive patient perfect(ive) person(al) positron-emission tomography phonetic form (in principles and parameters framework) phonology Primitive Indo-European; Proto-Indo-European plural phrase marker postposition primary object polite possessive; possessor potential prepositional phrase past participle pluperfect predicative prefix preposition present an unspecified NP pronominal element; pronoun progressive progressive phrase prohibitive present participle phrase structure rule Phrase Structure Grammar [the] proper treatment of quantification [in English] (Montague grammar) purpose; purposive question quantifier raising quantifier wh-marking List of Abbreviations xxxv R-expression R-graph RC RECIP REFL reg ReIN REP RES REST rev.
The reconstructed subject-agreement morphemes of the prefix conjugation are *’- (1S), *t- (2S, 3Sf, 2P), *y- (3Sm), and *n- (1P). Suffixes differentiate number and partly gender. Some morphemes used for verb derivation are found in many Afroasiatic languages, so most probably those are a feature of Proto-Afroasiatic. The transitivizing/ causativizing *s- $ *-s and the intransitivizing/ passivizing *m- $ *-m, *n-, and *t- $ *-t belong to these morphemes. , *dim-/*dam- ‘blood’, *tuf- ‘to spit’, *sum-/ *sim- ‘name’, *sin-/*san- ‘nose’, *man-/*min‘house’, and *nam-/*nim- ‘man’.
Hy weet ek is moeg (‘He knows I am tired’), which alternates with Hy weet dat ek moeg is (‘He knows that I tired am’), whereas standard Dutch permits only the latter . retention of main-clause ordering in subordinate interrogatives – cf. Hy wonder wat lees ek (‘He wonders what read I’) versus Hy wonder wat ek lees (‘He wonders what I read’), which is the only permissible structure in Dutch. Lexically, Afrikaans differs substantially from Dutch in featuring borrowings from Khoekhoe, Malay, and Creole Portuguese (see ‘Lexical Borrowing’ section), and also, as a consequence of the ‘suiwer Afrikaans’ policy, in respect of many neologisms, which were created to avoid adopting an English expression – cf.