By Robert V. Friedenberg
We won't ever understand definitely the right identification of America's first political advisor. it's most likely that applicants have been looking favorable insurance in colonial newspapers as early as 1704; it's also most probably that by way of 1745 applicants have been utilizing handbills and pamphlets to reinforce press assurance of campaigns; and we all know that one profitable candidate, George Washington in 1758, bought refreshments for strength electorate. those conventional methods to successful votes have in recent times been amplified by way of experts who've proven how cable networks, videocassettes, modems, faxes, concentration teams, and different technique of communique might be positioned to partisan use. during this ebook, Robert V. Friedenberg examines the entire conversation thoughts utilized in modern political campaigning.
After supplying a historical past of political consulting, Friedenberg examines the relevant verbal exchange specialities utilized in modern campaigns. all through, political specialists talk about their methods and assessment the advantages and shortcomings of those equipment. a useful textual content for what's arguably the main speedily altering box of utilized verbal exchange, this paintings is needs to analyzing for college kids and researchers of yankee politics, utilized verbal exchange, and modern political theory.
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Additional resources for Communication Consultants in Political Campaigns: Ballot Box Warriors
Although I have added to her discussion and adapted it to my purposes in dealing with political consultants, I am indebted to her analysis for providing me an exceedingly useful paradigm from which to build. See Jamieson, Packaging the Presidency, p. 4. A HISTORY OF POLITICAL CONSULTING IN AMERICA 27 9. Jackson won 99 electoral votes. Adams won 84 electoral votes. Crawford won 41 electoral votes. Clay won 37 electoral votes. The House of Representatives would select from the top three finishers; hence Clay was not a candidate once the House began to deliberate, but as Speaker of the House he wielded undue influence to determine among the remaining three candidates.
6 POLLING CONSULTANTS 33 Although the advertising firms used by Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 drew on polling services to help determine the themes for the limited television spots they used that year, it was not until 1960 that modern, rigorous, scientific polling was widely utilized in a presidential campaign. Lou Harris became a key strategist in the Kennedy campaign that year as his analysis of public opinion in the primary states helped the Kennedy organization develop the strategy for the senator’s string of successful primary victories, resulting in his ultimate nomination.
Friedenberg, Political Campaign Communication (New York: Praeger, 1991), pp. 6–12, provides an overview of contemporary changes in political campaigns upon which this analysis of changes in consulting is based. 43. , January 16, 1997. 44. Sorensen is quoted in Theodore White, The Making of the President 1960 (New York: Pocket Books, 1961), p. 65. 45. For brief background material on the key figures in the Kennedy campaign, see White, The Making of the President 1960, pp. 60–65. 30 COMMUNICATION CONSULTANTS IN POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS 46.