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Cognition and Intelligence: Identifying the Mechanisms of by Robert J. Sternberg

By Robert J. Sternberg

Written through recognized specialists, this booklet is set mental study on intelligence and some of the elements that impression its improvement. the amount summarizes and synthesizes the earlier 30 years of literature on intelligence. every one writer takes a unique experimental method of the topic, spanning examine on neuroscience and perceptual pace to analyze on challenge fixing and metacognition.

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It comprises some forty first-order factors in the first stratum, eight second-order factors in the second stratum, and one factor (psychometric g) in the third stratum. The challenge now is to discover the causal basis of the individual differences from which these factors arise. Researchers now want to understand them in terms of cognitive processes and brain physiology. The greatest interest so far is focused on g, the most general component of the common factor variance. It is also the most mysterious, as it cannot be characterized in terms of the information content of mental tests or in terms of any observable types of behavior.

This is because the former is concerned with the effects of experimentally varying task parameters and measuring the effects on RT within subjects, while variation between subjects is treated as unwanted error, to be minimized by averaging RTs over a number of subjects or over many test trials in a single subject. Only the direction and relative magnitudes of the experimental effects are of interest. Thus it is not a critical disadvantage that the exact numerical values of RT vary from one lab to another, so long as the relative effects of experimental manipulations are replicable across different labs.

1990). What one intelligence test measures. A theoretical account of processing in the Raven Progressive Matrix Test. Psychological Review, 97(3), 404–431. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Cattell, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671–684. , & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis.

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