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Coarticulation and the Structure of the Lexicon by Rebecca Anne Scarborough

By Rebecca Anne Scarborough

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In order to find nasal words with smaller neighborhoods and higher relative frequencies, words with complex nasal onsets and codas had to be tapped as well. However, since neighbors are defined by one phoneme addition, deletion, or substitution (meaning that one segment in the onset or coda had to remain unchanged), these words all had small enough neighborhoods that nearly all had high relative frequencies. Therefore, as many low-R complex onset/coda words and as many high-R simple onset/coda words as possible were chosen, and the rest of the word sets were filled out by balancing just the vowel, nasal, and lexical factors.

Points will be referred to by their temporal distance from the 33 vowel edge: 5ms, 10ms, 15ms, 20ms. Thus, for both V1 and V2, the 5ms point is 5ms from the intervening consonant, but for V1, this is the chronologically last point in the (V2 end) V2 midpt V2 onset V2 5ms V2 10ms V2 15ms V2 20ms V1 20ms V1 15ms V1 10ms V1 5ms V1 end V1 midpt (V1 onset) vowel, whereas it is the first point for V2. V2 V1 Figure 7 Schematic of a VCV sequence showing vowel formant measurement points Measurements were taken from the numerical output of a formant track performed for a selected vowel using PCquirer acoustic analysis software (Scicon RD).

But as was discussed previously, the set of high-R monosyllabic words is quite limited. So the nasal-contrastive VN set includes 6 low-R and 2 high-R monosyllabic words. There were a total of 64 VN words and 64 NV words. Half of the words in each group were low-R and half were high-R. Additionally, each group of nasal words (VN and NV) was further divided according to the phonological properties of the vowel. Recall that although vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive in French, not all vowels rely on this contrast.

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