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Chemistry of Modern Papermaking by Cornel Hagiopol

By Cornel Hagiopol

"Chemistry of contemporary Papermaking provides a chemist's viewpoint at the papermaking approach. With approximately three% of the mass of a paper product invested in water-soluble chemical substances, paper makers can regulate the rate and potency of the method, reduce and reuse surplus fabrics, and differentiate a paper product as required by way of particular shoppers. With learn and improvement scattered throughout educational journals or

"Foreword Readers of this booklet are in for a pleased event! The authors of Chemistry of recent Papermaking essentially have a profound enthusiasm for his or her subject material, of which they care approximately deeply and need to percentage with their viewers. although there were different textbooks facing the chemistry of papermaking, this e-book achieves an incredible new milestone in bringing jointly a wealth of perception about the chemical techniques which could have functional use in a state of the art papermaking facility. by no means sooner than has a textbook compiled, rigorously digested, and lucidly defined this kind of deep number of info from either the patent and medical literature. This synthesis is completed not just via diligent paintings, but additionally displays the years of business event of the authors. Readers also will speedy come to recognize Hagiopol and Johnston's presents for teaching--especially the instructing of chemistry. because the authors themselves country extra successfully of their booklet, one of many vital rules of the chemistry of papermaking is that of "leveraging." With mostly basically approximately three% of the mass of a paper product invested in water-soluble chemical substances, the papermaker can in achieving dramatic results. at the one hand, she or he can vastly elevate the potency of the process--including the creation price. for example, by way of retention aids, the potency of protecting nice debris within the paper might be superior. not just does this support to lessen wasted fabrics, however it additionally is helping papermakers to prevent major discharges of waterborne elements as liquid effluent. An optimized wet-end chemistry application may also in attaining greater charges of water removing, which regularly permits papermakers to hurry up the process"--Provided by way of publisher. Read more...

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Extra info for Chemistry of Modern Papermaking

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O O CH C H2C R H2C OH H CH OH H C C OH C O OC OH H + R CH CH2 NH CH2 NH H2C OH C R O H2C OH O CH H C OH C HC O C H OH (II)31 R Derivatized compounds are grafted through copolymerization or chain transfer [423]. A more effective transfer of free radicals to cellulose is obtained by derivatization with ethylene sulfide [386]. The chemical composition of the grafted copolymer can be different from that obtained in the absence of polysaccharides. The branched formation changes the solution composition and the local concentration of the comonomers.

Despite the similar reactivity and identical organic compounds used for esterification (acids and anhydrides [70]), in the absence of a solvent for cellulose, esterification takes place on the surface only. The final product shows a very broad compositional distribution. Cellulose esterification performed in solution is more effective. Cellulose acetate is synthesized [312] in solvent/non-solvent mixture (methylene chloride–methanol–xylene), or lithium chlorideN,N-dimethylacetamide blend is used as a solvent for cellulose esterification with a fatty acid to a high degree of substitution [53].

1 Chemical Reactions That Keep the Molecular Weight Unchanged When pendant hydroxyl groups are involved in the chemical reaction with mono-functional compounds (or complex with iodine [240]), the polymer molecular weight remains unchanged. The etherification of carbohydrates changes the hydroxyl group into ether bonds. Starch reacts with ethylene oxide [241] in alkaline pH to make ethylated starch. Hydrophilicity is modified and the new functional group attached through the ether bond may bring new properties to that poly-saccharide.

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