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Chemistry for Nonchemists: Principles and Applications for by Frank R. Spellman

By Frank R. Spellman

To successfully care for any chemical-based challenge, together with pollutants, environmental, well-being and protection execs should have not less than a rudimentary realizing of the fundamental suggestions of chemistry. This booklet presents such pros with an introductory reference that may aid them to appreciate the elemental ideas of chemistry and to appreciate these ideas as they practice to the environmental compliance courses that keep watch over place of work task. Written for an individual whose paintings includes environmental administration, making plans, influence overview, safety, or compliance, or whose duties comprise designing, enforcing, and comparing a overall healthiness and safeguard software, Chemistry for Nonchemists offers a close evaluate of chemistry and its rules, chemical nomenclature, chemical reactions, and their software to regulatory compliance courses lower than some of the environmental, future health and defense legislation. This booklet may help readers comprehend the "laws" of chemistry and the ramifications of out-of-control chemistry. The e-book starts off with a overview of the periodic desk, a glance at chemical constitution and bonding, and a proof of keyword phrases. the writer, a 35-year environmental veteran, then makes a speciality of the basics of natural and inorganic chemistry, the chemistry of water, and chemical reactions as they follow to environmental compliance courses. From there, he strikes to extra complicated discussions of solvents and solutes and concludes with in-depth examinations of complex sampling and research, the complicated reactions of metals, and chemistry's function in chance overview.

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Sample text

This formula shows that nitroglycerin consists of 3 atoms of C, 5 atoms of H, and the 3 molecules of NO3. If the parentheses were not used, the formula would not describe the true structure of the nitroglycerin molecule: C3H5(NO3)3. 42 ߜ C HA PT ER 3 Key Point: Formulas identify the elements, and the number of atoms, that compose the molecule. The formula is a shorthand way of writing what elements are present in each molecule of a compound, and how many atoms of each element are present in each molecule.

A concentration of 1 ‫ ן‬10‫מ‬12 has a pH of 12. A pH less than 7 indicates an acid solution, and a pH greater than 7 indicates a basic solution. ߜ Interesting Point: In pH, the ‘‘p’’ is for the German word potentz and the H stands for hydrogen. Remembering that pure water itself ionizes to a very small extent, scientists developed the pH scale to work with these very small concentrations as whole numbers. 4. The pH scale. pH). A pH less than 7 is indicative of an acidic solution. 4). , 6 and 7) indicates a tenfold change in the hydrogen ion concentration.

Nonpolar—all ends with the same electrical charge. Polar—oppositely charged ends. Radical—a group of elements that behaves as a single element. All radicals are ions, possessing an electrical charge. Subscript—the small number written next to the symbol of an element in a formula. It tells how many atoms of that element are in each molecule. Valence—the number of electrons an atom gives, takes, or shares when it bonds with other atoms. 1. In the following chemical formulas, determine the number of atoms contained in each formula.

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