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Chemistry and Technology of Silicones by Walter Noll

By Walter Noll

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The use of copper-zinc alloys is said to have advantages under certain working conditions (208, 255). Aluminum is reported to be active in a similar context (109). Very recent investigations even ascribe to it a most decisive influence on the rate of the reaction. It is said to accelerate both the reaction of methyl chloride with copper and that of copper(I) chloride with silicon (755). The addition of cobalt (71) or metals with a deoxidizing action, such as calcium or titanium, before the sintering of copper-silicon tablets (775) also causes an increase in the proportion of more highly methylated silanes in the reaction product.

Under certain conditions, the presence of copper oxide increases the efficiency of the catalyst (203). Post-oxidized CuSi alloys are said to have proved to be particularly suitable for the synthesis of phenylchlorosilanes (203). The surface development of the catalyst is also of importance (75). The optimum amounts of copper and silver are between about 5 and 10% of the silicon used. An increase of the amount of catalyst within this range or even beyond it does not improve the results of the synthesis.

None is optimally suited for the synthesis of all organosilanes with all conceivable organic groups and at the same time superior economically and with respect to its ability to determine functionalities. Each process has its specific advantages and disadvantages, which can be understood in detail only from detailed discussion. Versatile industrial silicone production must therefore be based on a variety of pro­ cesses, depending on which synthesis is found optimal for the required organosilane, or which synthesis is best able to fulfill the need for particular functionalities.

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