By Renée van Bezooijen
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Additional resources for Characteristics and recognizability of vocal expressions of emotion
The stimuli were rated on three semantic differential scales, namely, active/passive, pleasant/unpleasant, and strong/weak. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that about two-thirds to three-quarters of the variance in the semantic differential ratings could be accounted for by the manipulations of the acoustic parameters, and that a linear model of the judges' cue utilization seemed to be a reasonably good approximation of their response system. On the whole, tempo appeared to be the most powerful predictor: It accounted for 31% of the variance compared to 14% for the number of harmonics, and between 3% and 5% for the remaining acoustic parameters (except for amplitude range: less than 1%).
In the sense of non-emotional versus emotional. , a situation in which the balance of the organism has been upset by some kind of disturbing event. Stress has been shown to involve a series of physiological and behavioural changes, characterized by some degree of activation or emotional tension, which prepare the organism for an appropriate response. Scherer (1981a) summarizes the findings of empirical studies on vocal correlates of stress, both in real-life situations and in a laboratory setting.
The adequacy of the 43 discriminant functions may be tested by having the cases classified that were used to derive the functions in the first place and comparing predicted group membership with actual group membership. 4 . 3 RESULTS First, we will present the optimal set of discriminating variables as it appeared from a number of step-wise procedures. Next, we will examine the contributions of the various parameters to separating the emotional categories by inspecting the composition of the functions extracted, and specifically the standardized weights.