By George J. Antos, Abdullah M. Aitani
Explains the chemistry governing naphtha reforming, catalyst practise and characterization, catalyst deactivation and regeneration, and the most recent advances in expertise and purposes. contains new discussions of matters linked to non-stop catalyst regeneration, next-generation reforming catalysts, environmental rules affecting the sphere, and techniques of benzene relief.
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Extra info for Catalytic Naphtha Reforming
If the electronic factor has already decided the way of the primary reactive adsorption, geometrical effects will control whether bond shift or C5 cyclic mechanism (with or without hydrogenolysis) follows and in what ratio. There are experimental evidences that a hydrocarbon with C5 main chain will undergo predominantly C5 cyclization (and C5 cyclic isomerization). 3% Pt/SiO2 (EUROPT-1), simply because of the steric hindrance of the latter molecule in forming a ﬂat-lying intermediate. [13,127] This mechanism should involve a sort of dehydrogenative bond shift isomerization.
29] The assumption of dienes and trienes does not mean that these intermediates should appear in the gas phase. It is more likely that a ‘hydrocarbon pool’ is produced on the catalyst surface upon reactive chemisorption of the reactant(s). , may appear as intermediates. The true intermediates of aromatization are surface unsaturated species; those appearing in the gas phase are the products of surface dehydrogenation and desorption process. Desorption should be less and less likely with increasing unsaturation of the surface intermediates.
5. Isomerization of these primary alkylaromatics on acidic sites would shift this value while producing p- and m-xylene. [33d] These results indicate that the activation of the primary and secondary C atoms is strongly dependent on the nature of the catalyst, and the reasons are still to be clariﬁed. The role of hydrogen in the scheme is twofold. First, the metal catalyzed trans-cis isomerization through half-hydrogenated surface intermediates[20,34] requires hydrogen. : C6 H4 ½ads þ 2H½ads !