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Brightred Advanced Higher Chemistry by Brightred

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The concentration of H+(aq) A increased by a factor of 2 B increased by a factor of 100 C decreased by a factor of 2 D decreased by a factor of 100. You must be able to do these types of calculations. Make sure you know how to use your calculator so that you get the correct answer every time. net 2 A glass of lemon juice was found to have a pH of 3 and a glass of apple juice a pH of 5. From this information, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the lemon juice and apple juice are in the proportion (ratio) A 100 : 1 B 1 : 100 C 20 : 1 D 3 : 5.

The standard enthalpy of formation (∆Hof ) is defined as the enthalpy change involved when one mole of a substance is formed from its elements in their standard states. The standard state of a substance is its most stable form at a pressure of 1 atm and at a specified temperature, usually taken as 25°C or 298 K. It follows from the above definition that the standard enthalpy of formation of an element in its most stable form is zero. The standard state of a substance is its most stable form at a pressure of 1 atm and usually at a temperature of 298 K.

STANDARD ENTHALPY OF FORMATION We know that the enthalpy change (∆H) for the reaction R → P is given by: ∆H = HP − HR where HP and HR are the enthalpies of the products and reactants, respectively. This expression tells us that ∆H could be calculated if we knew the actual enthalpies of all the reactants and products. However, there is no way that we can determine the absolute value of the enthalpy of a substance. Only values relative to an arbitrary reference point can be given and, for all enthalpy expressions, this reference point is called the standard enthalpy of formation.

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