By Dong Yu

This e-book presents a accomplished evaluate of the hot development within the box of computerized speech acceptance with a spotlight on deep studying types together with deep neural networks and lots of in their versions. this is often the 1st automated speech popularity ebook devoted to the deep studying method. as well as the rigorous mathematical therapy of the topic, the publication additionally provides insights and theoretical origin of a chain of hugely profitable deep studying models.

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**Extra resources for Automatic Speech Recognition: A Deep Learning Approach**

**Sample text**

In Chap. 12 we describe DNN-based multitask and transfer learning with which the feature representations are shared and transferred across related tasks. We will use multilingual and crosslingual speech recognition as the main example, which uses a shared-hidden-layer DNN architecture, to demonstrate these techniques. In Chap. 13 we illustrate recurrent neural network, including long short-term memory neural networks, for speech recognition. In Chap. 14 we introduce computational network, a unified framework for describing arbitrary learning machines, such as deep neural networks (DNNs), computational neural networks (CNNs), recurrent neural networks (RNNs) including the version with long short-term memory (LSTM), logistic regression, and maximum entropy model, which can be illustrated as a series of computational steps.

36) i=1 t=1 After carrying out similar steps for Q 2 (θ |θ0 ) in Eq. 35 we obtain a similar simplification N N T −1 Q 2 (θ |θ0 ) = P(q t = i, qt+1 = j|o1T , θ0 ) log ai j . 37) i=1 j=1 t=1 We note that in maximizing Q(θ |θ0 ) = Q 1 (θ |θ0 ) + Q 2 (θ |θ0 ), the two terms can be maximized independently. That is, Q 1 (θ |θ0 ) contains only the parameters in Gaussians, while Q 2 (θ |θ0 ) involves just the parameters in the Markov chain. Also, in maximizing Q(θ |θ0 ), the weights in Eqs. 37, or γt (i) = P(q t = i|o1T , θ0 ) and ξt (i, j) = P(qt = i, qt+1 = j|o1T , θ0 ), respectively, are treated as known constants due to their conditioning on θ0 .

Efficient backprop. In: Neural Networks: Tricks of the Trade, pp. 9–50. Springer (1998) 15. : The expectation-maximization algorithm. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 13(6), 47–60 (1996) 16. : Minimum phone error and I-smoothing for improved discriminative training. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), vol. 1, pp. I–105 (2002) 17. : A tutorial on hidden markov models and selected applications in speech recognition. Proc. IEEE 77(2), 257–286 (1989) 18.