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Autism: An Introduction to Psychological Theory by Francesca Happé

By Francesca Happé

This identify is meant for complicated undergraduate and masters point scholars in psychology; specialist scientific, developmental and academic psychologists; common practitioners and others with a different curiosity in little ones; careworkers; and fogeys of autistic young children.

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Then the child saw a character take a picture of a toy cat sitting on a chair. The photograph was taken from the camera AUTISM AT THE COGNITIVE LEVEL 41 and placed face down on the table to develop. Meanwhile, the toy cat was moved from the chair to the bed. ”, as well as control questions about the original and current locations. This task was designed to be formally equivalent to the false belief task, but instead of Sally having a false (out-of-date) belief about the location of her marble, here the representation in question is not Sally’s belief but a photograph.

Along with the standard memory and reality control questions. Three-year-old children in this experiment demonstrated some understanding of minds—they said that Ann believed what she said, and that Sally too would believe it. So although they failed to comprehend the intended deception (which 4-year-olds recognized), they did in fact attribute a false belief By contrast, the subjects with autism took no account of the characters’ mental states at all, giving reality-based answers to both questions (Ann and Sally think the chocolate is where it really is—in Ann’s box).

Their gestures mean nothing to you. Your first instinct might be to fight, to push these intruders away from you; to fly, to run away from their incomprehensible demands; or to freeze, to try to ignore the chaos around you. The world of the person with autism may be rather like this. If autistic people lack the ability to “think about thoughts”, their own as well as others’, then they are like strangers in a foreign land, because the world we inhabit is a social world. The most important element in our surroundings is human.

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