By Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts
Larsen (speech and listening to bioscience and expertise, Massachusetts Institute of know-how) and Aarts, a researcher within the deepest region within the Netherlands, research functions of bandwidth extension (BWE) to tune and speech, putting unique emphasis on sign processing strategies. protecting concept, purposes, and algorithms, they assessment very important ideas in psychoacoustics, sign processing, and loudspeaker conception, and boost the idea and implementation of BWE utilized to low-frequency sound copy, perceptually coded audio, speech, and noise abatement. an summary of a BWE patent is incorporated. The ebook might be of curiosity to engineers, researchers, and postgraduate scholars in audio, sign processing, and speech.
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Additional info for Audio Bandwidth Extension: Application of Psychoacoustics, Signal Processing and Loudspeaker Design
3 Lumped-element Model For low frequencies, a loudspeaker can be modelled with the aid of some simple elements, allowing the formulation of some approximate analytical expressions for the loudspeaker sound radiation due to an electrical input current, or voltage, which proves to be quite satisfactory for frequencies below the cone break-up frequency. The extreme accelerations experienced by a typical paper cone above about 2 kHz, cause it to ﬂex in a complex pattern. The cone no longer acts as a rigid piston but rather as a collection of vibrating elements.
2 An inﬁnite impulse response (IIR) ﬁlter in direct form-I structure. The input signal x(k) is ﬁltered by the ﬁlter, yielding the output signal y(k). The boxes labeled ‘T ’ are one sample (unit) delay elements. The signal at each forward tap is multiplied with the corresponding coefﬁcients b, while the signal in the recursive (feedback) part is multiplied with the corresponding coefﬁcients a, respectively and the frequency response can be found by substituting z = e−i . It is obvious that an FIR ﬁlter has only zeros and no poles.
12. 2 with ν = 1]). 80) but this is only useful for large values of z. Eqn. 64 and the ﬁrst term of Eqn. 81) which is in agreement with the large ka approximation, as can also be found in the earlier given references. An approximation for all values of ka was developed by Aarts and Janssen . Here, only a limited number of elementary functions is involved: H1 (z) ≈ 2 − J0 (z) + π 16 sin z 36 −5 + 12 − π z π 1 − cos z . 005. Replacing H1 (z) in Fig. 12 by the approximation in Eqn. 82 would result in no visible change.