By Cicero S. Vaucher
Frequency synthesizers are a necessary construction block of RF verbal exchange items. they are often present in conventional client items, in own communique structures, and in optical conversation apparatus. in view that frequency synthesizers are utilized in many alternative purposes, varied functionality elements might have to be thought of in each one case. the most physique of the textual content describes a conceptual framework for interpreting the functionality of PLL frequency synthesizers, and provides optimization methods for the various functionality features. The research of the PLL houses is played with using the open-loop bandwidth and part margin recommendations, to permit the impression of higher-order poles to be taken into consideration from the start of the layout method. The theoretical approach research is complemented by way of descriptions of leading edge process and construction block architectures, via circuit implementations in bipolar and CMOS applied sciences, and through size effects. Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers comprises uncomplicated info for the newbie in addition to in-depth wisdom for the skilled clothier. it really is extensively illustrated with sensible layout examples utilized in business products.
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Extra info for Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers
Active Loop Filters A counterpart for the passive loop filters are active filter implementations, which are displayed in Figure 3-7 (a) and (b). The use of active loop filters results in increased complexity and power dissipation, and introduces additional noise sources in the loop. On the other hand, there are situations where active loop filters are either unavoidable, or where they lead to a smaller chip-area when the loop filter is fully integrated. The active loop filter configuration displayed in Figure 3-7(a) is often used when the charge-pump output can not directly provide the required voltage range for tuning of the VCO.
Spurious Signals due to PM Modulation of the Carrier Consider a signal of constant amplitude sine wave of frequency which is phase-modulated by a where is the peak phase deviation, also known as the modulation index . 5) shows that the peak phase deviation does not depend on the absolute magnitude of the spurious signals Instead, the peak deviation is determined by the ratio of the magnitudes of the spurs and the carrier signal. The relative magnitude of undesired signal components in relation to the magnitude of the carrier is often expressed in dBc, which means decibel with respect to the carrier.
The required value of in the passive loop filters of Figure 3-6 is determined by the choice of and by time constant With the configuration of Figure 3-7 (b), the trans-impedance function has a zero at a frequency of where B is the ratio of the output currents of two chargepumps, the one connected to the active integrator built around and the other to the parallel combination of and In this way, the physical size of can be traded-off against the value of B. The added design freedom can be advantageous in applications where the loop filter is fully integrated.