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Approaches to Legal Ontologies: Theories, Domains, by Giovanni Sartor, Pompeu Casanovas, Mariangela Biasiotti,

By Giovanni Sartor, Pompeu Casanovas, Mariangela Biasiotti, Meritxell Fernández-Barrera

Legal ontologies have proved the most important for representing, processing and retrieving felony details, and should collect an expanding importance within the rising framework of the Semantic net. regardless of the various learn tasks within the box, a collective mirrored image at the theoretical foundations of felony ontology engineering was once nonetheless lacking. This booklet bridges the space, by way of exploring present methodologies and theoretical methods to felony ontologies. It gathers sixteen papers, each one of them offering matters and options for ontology engineering with regards to a specific method of, or point of, the legislations: comparative legislation, case-based reasoning, multilingualism, complicated- structures, sociolegal research, felony conception, social ontology, ontology studying, computational ontology, carrier ontology, cognitive technology, record modelling, huge felony databases, clinical, linguistic and legal-technology views. The ebook will hence curiosity researchers in felony informatics, synthetic intelligence and legislations, felony conception, felony philosophy, criminal sociology, comparative legislation, in addition to builders of functions according to the clever administration of criminal details, in either e-commerce and e-government (e-administration, e-justice, e-democracy).

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The relevance of the definition and organisation of legal concepts is the design of a conceptual map of the domain, a structured universe of discourse shared by domain experts that enables their communication and mutual comprehension. 13 In this sense, when a legal scholar speaks of contract any other domain expert should be able to recognise the concept and therefore know what kind of entity the term refers to. Nevertheless, the conceptual map of the domain does obviously not remain always the same, but a certain conceptual dynamics exists, a sort of evolution of legal conceptual systems due to changes in regulation or to judicial interpretation that either modifies the intensional14 or extensional15 definition of concepts, or creates new concepts.

15). Sometimes both types of systems of concepts, namely, is-a systems of concepts and operational systems of concepts will be mixed. In this case a variety of conceptual structures and semantic relations will be intermingled. In the following figure, for instance, we can see the operational family of Contract (contract 2 The Legal Theory Perspective 37 Fig. 14 Operational family of the concept Obligation (Source: Cornu 1990: 207) Obligation Debt Credit Object Payment Fig. 15 Structure of an operational family of concepts Semantically-related-to relations Contract Agreement Object Cause Form Ad substantiam Ad probationem Fig.

1 System of Concepts, Their Topological and Semantic Properties and Methodology for Exploring Them In our analysis of legal concepts will rely on the following notion of system of concepts or conceptual system: A conceptual system can be conceived as a network in which each node corresponds to a concept and each line in the network corresponds to a link between concepts (Thagard 1992: 30). Furthermore, since the links between concepts have a semantic nature, a conceptual system can be regarded as a semantic network.

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