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Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks by Michael Woods

By Michael Woods

Were you aware . . .Ancient cultures measured time correctly with water clocks? An engineer within the first century B.C. designed an odometer to calculate distance traveled? humans computed the 1st values of pi approximately 4 thousand years in the past? Computing know-how is as outdated as human society itself. the 1st people on the earth used uncomplicated computing talents. They counted via carving tally marks in bone. They used physique elements and simple instruments to degree. Over the centuries, old peoples discovered extra approximately computing. humans within the historical heart East used scales to degree items for buying and selling. the traditional Egyptians wrote textbooks together with multiplication and department difficulties. the traditional chinese language constructed an abacus for fast calculations. old Greeks made advances in geometry. What types of instruments and strategies did old mathematicians use? Which in their innovations and discoveries have stood the try out of time? and the way did the ancients set the level for our personal sleek computing? study extra in old Computing expertise.

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Additional resources for Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks (Technology in Ancient Cultures)

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The Egyptian calendar had twelve months of thirty days each, with five extra days added at the end of each year. , the pharaoh Ptolemy III made the calendar even more accurate. He added an extra day every fourth year. That day made up for the nearly sixhour difference (about one-quarter of a day) between the calendar year and the solar year. A year with an extra day is a leap year. , was one of the largest settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ruins, discovered in 1922, are located in modern-day Pakistan.

They may have even discovered ideas of geometry before the Greeks made those ideas famous. Sti c k N u mb e r s a n d C o u nting B o a r d s The Chinese wrote different kinds of numerals over time. , ancient priests carved one type of numerals into shells and bones. They used these objects in ceremonies to gain insight to the future. The inscriptions recorded the number of animals sacrificed, prisoners taken in war, animals hunted, and more. These are the earliest recorded Chinese numerals. Lines and curves formed the symbols for the numbers 1 through 9.

The shadow lengthened throughout the afternoon as the Sun dipped in the western sky. People estimated the time based on the length of the shadow. , the Egyptians made a new and improved sundial. It looked like the letter T stuck in the ground. A long, narrow base extended behind it along the ground. Lines on the base marked the hours. Egyptians could tell the time of day by looking at which line the bar’s shadow reached. Later, they used sundials in the shape of half circles, like those used in the ancient Middle East.

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