By Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin
Our universe will be defined mathematically through an easy version built in 1922 at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) through Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925). with out the advantage of observational proof, Friedmann estimated that the full universe might extend and evolve with time. This marvelous prediction was once proven seven years later by means of Edwin Hubble. Its originator, regrettably didn't dwell to relish this triumph. This vibrant biography of an exceptional scientist units his existence and paintings opposed to a large backdrop of the background of cosmological reviews and its significant gamers, comparable to Einstein and others. The e-book is a window on Friedmann's college and college years, army carrier, and educating and learn in the course of a seminal interval of Soviet historical past. The authors contain special archival fabric, similar to Friedmann's letters from the Russian entrance, in addition to modern documents and recollections of work-mates. there's a exact remedy of his paintings in theoretical cosmology (1922-1924), set within the context of the association of Soviet technological know-how on the time.
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Extra info for Alexander A Friedmann: The Man who Made the Universe Expand
The paper is a quite independent study and supports the hope that its author will make with time a talented and independent scientist. Mr. Friedmann has a good command of French and German and reads English and Italian papers with ease, which is shown by his own work, and is also known to me by his correspondence with an Italian scientist [there is gap here - V. ], who worked on the same problem as Mr. Friedmann did in the above-mentioned paper (where Mr. Friedmann points to an inaccuracy in the investigation [there is a gap here - V.
Fomin by name, who sometimes signed with his full name, but sometimes also with initials. Judging by the content of some of the books reviewed in the journal, which could not possibly interest Friedmann, those reviews were written by Fomin. However, Friedmann's authorship can only be conjectured, because there are some reviews which could have been, in principle, written by him, yet are signed by Fomin. But here is a review of S. Melgunov's book Students' Organizations of the 1880s-1890s at Moscow University (Based on Archives), Moscow, 1908, 50 kopecks.
Bulgakov, physics of partial forces and thermal physics, higher optics and thermodynamics by O. D. Khvolson, and virtually all the courses in mechanics by D. K. Bobylev. Against some courses that Friedmann attended in his final years at college his record book has the note "exempted" - probably exempted from tests or examinations because Professors Bobylev, Steklov and Sokhotsky were sure of the results without examinations. 30 University years, 1906-14 Friedmann in the early 1910s. Steklov's diaries Information about Friedmann the student, and documentary evidence of his activities, can be found in V.