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Acoustics and the performance of music by Jürgen Meyer, Uwe Hansen

By Jürgen Meyer, Uwe Hansen

This vintage reference on musical acoustics and function perform starts with a quick advent to the basics of acoustics and the iteration of musical sounds. It then discusses the details of the sounds made via all of the regular tools in a latest orchestra in addition to the human voice, the way the sounds made via those tools are dispersed and the way the room into which they're projected impacts the sounds.

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3. Every line by position and length denotes the frequency and strength of the relevant partial. Connecting the endpoints of the spectral lines results in the so-called spectral envelope. This curve gives a clear representation of the amplitude distribution as a function of frequency without considering the harmonic number of the individual partial. The spectral envelope is therefore especially suited for summary representations. 2 The Frequency Range of Sound Spectra The lower limit of the spectrum of partials is always determined by the fundamental, that is, the frequency which corresponds to the written representation (possibly under consideration of transposed notation).

Nevertheless, the problem of finding an association between objective acoustical data and tonal impressions on the basis of practical experiences should not be overestimated. A model, as schematically presented in Fig. 1, shall serve to clarify the complex sound processes which correspond to a single note. It proceeds from the concept that a tone is a vibrational process which changes in time, which is characterized by the number and strength of vibrations. Accordingly, the model contains a time axis (in the picture it runs from front to back), a frequency axis (from left to right) as well as an axis for sound pressure level (upwards), which is the quantity responsible for the loudness impression (Winckel, 1960).

10 Directional Dependence of the Masking threshold for a violin player, in reference to the direction of lowest masking threshold (¼0 dB) 250 Hz 1000 Hz 2000 Hz 0 - 3 dB 6 - 10 dB 3 - 6 dB > 10 dB fluctuations occur more rapidly, the impression is given (approximately between 10 and 15 Hz) of a tonal roughness. The strength of this effect depends on the frequency position of the modulated tones, the fluctuation frequency, and also on the relative strength of the amplitude fluctuation; however, it is practically independent of the absolute sound pressure level (Terhardt, 1973, 1974).

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