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Acoustic Communication in Birds. Production, Perception & by O. Kroodsma (Auth.)

By O. Kroodsma (Auth.)

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16. 875 inches/sec at 0, - 1 0 , - 2 0 , and - 3 0 dB (Marantz meter). 1. Recording Avian Sounds 35 FM and digital recording. FM recording differs from direct in that a carrier is modulated by the input signal. It is this modulated carrier that is recorded. This in turn is demodulated upon playback. FM recording evolved in answer to the two basic limitations of the direct process, the inability to record low frequencies (to dc) and amplitude instability. One of the limiting factors of the FM system is the ability of the tape transport to maintain absolute tape speed since any variation in speed will manifest itself as spurious modulation and increase the noise.

This does give the noise of the electronics, but it assumes a perfectly dry element, which is seldom found in the field. 3. Impedance The output impedance of a microphone is specified in ohms. For most micro­ phones that are called low impedance, it is on the order of 200 ohms. The importance of this specification is that, to achieve the best signal-to-noise ratio, 14 David C. Wickstrom the impedance of the microphone should be appropriate to the input of the recorder. 4. Maximum Level The maximum sound level a microphone can handle is specified in decibels SPL for a given level of distortion.

16. 875 inches/sec at 0, - 1 0 , - 2 0 , and - 3 0 dB (Marantz meter). 1. Recording Avian Sounds 35 FM and digital recording. FM recording differs from direct in that a carrier is modulated by the input signal. It is this modulated carrier that is recorded. This in turn is demodulated upon playback. FM recording evolved in answer to the two basic limitations of the direct process, the inability to record low frequencies (to dc) and amplitude instability. One of the limiting factors of the FM system is the ability of the tape transport to maintain absolute tape speed since any variation in speed will manifest itself as spurious modulation and increase the noise.

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