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A to Z of Physicists. Notable Scientists [biographies] by Darryl J. Leiter

By Darryl J. Leiter

One other vital survey within the amazing Scientists sequence, A to Z of Physicists focuses not just at the lives and personalities of these profiled, but additionally on their study and contributions to the sphere. a desirable and demanding part of this quantity is the eye paid to the hindrances that ladies and minority physicists have triumph over to arrive their own objectives. via incidents, quotations, and images, the entries painting anything of the human face that is usually misplaced in books on technological know-how and scientists. A to Z of Physicists positive factors one hundred fifty entries and 50 black-and-white photos. Culturally inclusive and spanning the total variety of physicists from precedent days to the current day, this is often a great source for college kids and normal readers attracted to the heritage of physics or the numerous facets of the non-public lives of vital physicists.

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Bloembergen was born on March 11, 1920, in Dordrecht, the Netherlands, the second of six children born to Auke Bloembergen, who was a chemical engineer, and Sophia Maria Quint, who had a degree that qualified her to teach French but instead devoted herself to family duties. ” Encouragement of intellectual attainments and a level of frugality beyond that required by family income were twin pillars of his childhood. However, his parents also urged him to participate in field hockey, water sports, and skating on the Dutch waterways, rather than sit constantly over his books.

This work laid the foundation for the modern development of quantum electrodynamics. Later on, he collaborated on the scattering of pi mesons (the quanta of the nuclear force) and on their production by photon processes. He also worked on solid state theory, investigating the splitting of atomic energy levels when an atom is inserted into a crystal. He made studies of the theory of metals and developed a theory of order and disorder in alloys. In astrophysics, he 28 Bhabha, Homi Jehangir made important contributions to the understanding of the explosions of giant stars called supernovae and helped to formulate the theory of neutron stars, the dense remnants of supernova explosions in which the gravitational force is so strong that protons fuse with electrons to form neutrons.

In 1924, he married Constanza Bayon, with whom he had a son and a daughter, and in the same year he obtained the first photos of an atomic transmutation, which was of nitrogen into an oxygen isotope. In 1919, he explained the transmutation of elements from experiments in which nitrogen was bombarded with alpha particles. The oxygen atoms and protons produced were detected by scintillations in a screen of zinc sulfide. He used a cloud chamber to photograph the tracks formed by these particles, taking more than 20,000 pictures and recording about 400,000 tracks.

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