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A Functional Approach to Syntax In Generative Description of by Petr Sgall, Ladislav Nebeský, Alla Goralčíková, Eva Hajičová

By Petr Sgall, Ladislav Nebeský, Alla Goralčíková, Eva Hajičová

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The differences mentioned above are mostly of such a nature that they can be reduced in the course of further empirical study, which will bring evidence for some of the proposed solutions-or for others-and which will make a more systematic confrontation of the two approaches possible. 2. 1 . 6 CRITERIA FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF THE DESCRIPTION INTO LEVELS Our formulation of the levels is consciously based-to a certain extent-on traditional notions (cf. Section 2. 1 . g. another level should be inserted between two of the levels he has already established).

The parti­ tion used here (on the basis of preliminary considerations) is very close to that presented by Dokulil ( 1 962, p. 32) as the classification of onomasio­ logical categories (substance, quality, action, circumstance). Thus we distinguish morphemic, syntactic, and semantic word classes (partitions of the sets of stem morphemes, lexical tagmemes, and lexical semantemes, respectively). em pfijezdu diskuse pokracovala. ) (2) Kdyz Karel nahle pfijel, diskuse pokracovala. ) It follows that on the tectogrammatical level a single semanteme corresponds to both the words pfijezd (arrival) and pfijel (had arrived), and another to both nahly (sudden) and nahle (suddenly).

A virtual sound can be specified as a combination of distinctive features from these subsets (which are mutually disjoint ; cf. Section 2. 2) . The set of well-formed sounds is, however, only a proper subset of the set of virtual sounds (in English as well as in Czech, for instance, the feature voiceless cannot be combined with that of nasality) . The set of all actual sounds is a subset of the set of well­ formed sounds of the given language, although in most cases, perhaps, the two latter sets are identical.

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